1. From Luther to Hitler: Things went wrong centuries ago,
    Vansittart (1941): Roots of Trouble: The Black Record of Germany Past, Present and Future
    justification for unconditional surrender & long occupation of Germany
    variants: Fredrick the Great or Bismarck to Hitler
    Hitler himself advocated this view!
    William Shirer, Rise and Fall of the Third Reich (1959)

  2. a) German historians, post-1945: Betriebsunfall="driving/factory accident"
    a kind of temporary insanity: things went wrong 1931-33
    back on track in 1945
    no need for a long occupation of defeated Germany
    b) things went wrong 1900-1914
    Fritz Fischer (1962), Germany's Grasp for World Power in World War I
    primacy of domestic politics in starting the war: distract the workers
    economic determinants of politics
    Punch, 1913:
    Once the land of poets, seekers and sages
    Who enchant us with their deathless pages
    Now the Prussian Junker, blind with fury
    Claims to be God's counsel, judge and jury.

  3. Marxist/modernization theory: Things started going wrong in 1848
    Hans-Ulrich Wehler (1973): "the defense of inherited ruling positions by pre-industrial elites against the onslaught of new forces"
    failed democratic revolution in 1848
    bourgeoisie coopted by unification of 1871
    failed revolution in 1918
    persistance of "traditional" elites (Prussian junkers, military, bureaucracy)