Bibliography for "From Zbaszyn to Manila"

by Bonnie Harris, February 2005



Cantor Joseph Cysner Collection of the JHSSD


The American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee Archives, New York


The Jewish Historical Society of San Diego Archives, San Diego, California


U.S. National Archives and Records Administration, Washington D.C.


U.S. National Archives and Records Administration, College Park, Maryland

Primary Sources (back to top)

Cantor Joseph Cysner Collection, Jewish Historical Society of San Diego.

This two box collection contains rare Holocaust memorabilia, along with assorted newspaper clippings, photographs, correspondence, personal papers, books, and original music manuscripts. This collection chronicles the life of Cantor Cysner, from his early cantorial appointments in Hildesheim and Hamburg from 1933 to 1938, to his Nazi deportation ordeal and internment at the Zbaszyn, Poland Detainee Camp in October 1938, to his immigration to the Philippines in April 1939, to his Japanese imprisonment at Santo Tomas in Manila in 1942, and to his resettlement in San Francisco and then San Diego after World War II. Important items in this collection are his handwritten memoir of his deportation to and time spent in Zbaszyn, a testimonial certificate with original art work presented to him when he left Zbaszyn, and four file folders of papers and photographs documenting his life in Manila from 1939 to 1946.

JDC Collection, American Jewish Joint Distribution Archives, New York.

The JDC Archives document the operations and activities of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee since 1914 in both text and photographic images. Text records include eyewitness accounts, telegrams, logs, press releases, speeches, passenger lists, correspondence, reports and financial records. JDC Collection 33/44 contains the following files:

    • File #784 holds approximately 250 documents pertaining specifically to the Jewish Community of Manila from May 19, 1938 to September 25, 1947.
    • File #787a holds approximately 230 documents pertaining specifically to the Mindanao Resettlement Plan from December 8, 1938 to June 28, 1947 along with the Mindanao Exploration Commission Report of October 16, 1938.
    • File (unnumbered) named "Philippine Immigration Laws" from September 12, 1940, containing 65 pages.

Bureau of Insular Affairs General Records, Record Group 350, NARA II

History: Division of Customs and Insular Affairs established in the Office of the Secretary of War, December 13, 1898, to administer customs and civil affairs in the islands acquired by the United States in the Spanish-American War. Name changed to Division of Insular Affairs by War Department order, December 10, 1900. Became Bureau of Insular Affairs, 1902. SEE 350.1.

Functions: Administered the customs and supervised the civil affairs of the Philippine Islands, 1898-1939; Puerto Rico, 1898- 1900, 1909-34; and Cuba, 1898-1902, 1906-9. Supervised the Dominican Customs Receivership, 1905-39, and Haitian Customs Receivership, 1920-24. Responsibility for Puerto Rico transferred to Division of Territories and Island Possessions, Department of the Interior, by EO 6726, May 29, 1934, effective March 2, 1935.

Abolished: By Reorganization Plan No. II of 1939, effective July 1, 1939.

Successor Agencies: Division of Territories and Island Possessions, Department of the Interior, 1939-50.

Record Group 350 File 28943 in the General Records (Entry 5).   File 28943 pertains mainly to Jewish refugees coming to the Philippines during the late 1930's.  There are lists of individuals, correspondence concerning people wanting entry to the islands, and a few newspaper clippings.  The documents consist of roughly 400 pages.

350.1 Administrative History of the Bureau of Insular Affairs

Established: In the War Department, by an act of July 1, 1902 (32 Stat. 712).

In the War Department:

      • Division of Customs and Insular Affairs (1898-1900)
      • Division of Insular Affairs (1900-2)

350.2 General Records of the Bureau of Insular Affairs and its Predecessors 1898-1945

Textual Records: General subject files (1,148 ft.) relating to the Philippines, 1898-1945; Puerto Rico, 1898-1900, 1909-34; Military Government of Cuba, 1898-1902; Provisional Government of Cuba, 1906-9; Dominican Customs Receivership, 1905-39; Haitian Customs Receivership, 1920-24; U.S. Virgin Islands, 1917-45; and Panama Canal, 1904-5, with indexes and record cards. Confidential file, 1914-35. Subject files relating to customs matters, 1898-1941 (74 ft.); and to the Dominican Customs Receivership, 1905-35. Letters sent, 1899-1913 (99 ft.), with endorsements, 1901-12. Personal name file, 1914- 45 (316 ft.).

350.3 Records relating to Philippine Islands 1898-1939

Textual Records: Executive orders and proclamations of the Governor General of the Philippine Islands, 1898-1935, and the President of the Commonwealth of the Philippine

Islands, 1935-36. Correspondence of the Philippine (Taft) Commission, 1900-6. Acts of the Commission, 1900-7; the Philippine Legislature, 1907-35; and the Philippine National Assembly, 1936-37. House and Senate bills of the Philippine Legislature, 1928-35. Galley proofs of A History of the Philippine Insurrection against the United States, 1899-1903, 1906, with related records of the War Department project to publish the history, 1898-1916. Correspondence and reports relating to Gen. Mariano Noriel and Apolinario Mabini, 1916. Records of the Philippine Exposition Board, 1904-5, and the Manila Railroad Company, 1905-17.

Office of Territories and Island Possessions, Record Group 126, NARA II

126.7 Records of the Office of US High Commissioner to the Philippine Islands 1935-59

History: Philippine Islands acquired by the treaty ending the Spanish- American War, December 10, 1898. Administered by the War Department through the Division of Customs and Insular Affairs, 1898-1900, Division of Insular Affairs, 1900-2, and Bureau of Insular Affairs, 1902-39. Functions transferred to Division of Territories and Island Possessions, Department of the Interior, by Reorganization Plan No. II of 1939, effective July 1, 1939. (For an administrative history of the Bureau of Insular Affairs and its predecessors, SEE RG 350). Between November 15, 1935, when the Commonwealth of the Philippines was declared in accordance with the Tydings-McGuffie (Independence) Act (48 Stat. 456), March 24, 1934, and July 4, 1946, when the independence of the Philippines was proclaimed, a U.S. High Commissioner, reporting through the Bureau of Insular Affairs and subsequently through the Division of Territories and Island Possessions, represented U.S. interests. Functions of the U.S. High Commissioner transferred to the Secretary of the Interior by EO 9245, September 16, 1942. Functions restored by EO 9616, September 14, 1945.

General Records of the State Department, Record Group 59, NARA I & NARA II

The State Department Decimal File (Record Group 59) categories are for the period of the Second World War Files, 740.00115PW (civilian prisoners and enemy non-combatants for the Pacific Theater of the World War II) and 740.00116PW (illegal and inhuman warfare for the Pacific Theater), both have document abstracts called "Purport Lists" to help identify documents relating to my subject. Another State Department file called Special War Problems (also Record Group 59), has a box list that is available in the Civilian Consultation Area, room 2600. This is also where the archivists who specialize in diplomatic records are located and I can speak with one of them before I begin my research when I am there in July. I will also look at some of the Decimal File categories for internal affairs of the Philippines such as social matters (811B.40.) A record group for the Intergovernmental Committee on Refugees (IGC) Lot file 52D408 Box 1, Amer,. Jewish Joint Dist. Comm. and others such committees concerned with Jewish refugees should also yield important information, especially the records of the IGC, which is the agency that promoted the resettlement plan on the island of Mindanao.

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Archives 1946-47 articles regarding the establishment and history of the Jewish Community in Manila.

Secondary Sources (back to top)

  1. Austin, Ben S. "Kristallnacht," The Holocaust/Shoah Page, February 21, 1996, <> (accessed November 21, 2003).
  2. Bauer, Yehuda. A History of the Holocaust, New York: Franklin Watts, 1982.
  3. Bauer, Yehuda. American Jewry and the Holocaust: The American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, 1939-1945. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1981.
  4. Ben-Sasson. H. H. A History of the Jewish People. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1976.
  5. Brin, Herb. "Cantor Cysner's Survival Story," Southwest Jewish Press, No. 4, October 13, 1960.
  6. Chan Robles Group, "The Philippine Independence Act (Tydings-McDuffie Act)," Chan Robles Virtual Law Library,, (accessed August 10, 2004).
  7. Corpuz, Onofre D. The Bureaucracy in the Philippines, University of the Philippines: Institute of Public Administration, 1957.
  8. Craig, William. The Fall of Japan. New York: Macmillan Co., 1955.
  9. Druks, Herbert. The Failure to Rescue, New York: Robert Speller & Sons, Publishers, Inc., 1977.
  10. Eberly, Annette. "Manila? Where? Us?" Present Tense, (Spring 1975), 2:3, 60-64.
  11. Ephraim, Frank. Escape to Manila: From Nazi Tyranny to Japanese Terror. Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2003.
  12. Feingold, Henry L. The Politics of Rescue. New York: Holocaust Library, 1970.
  13. Frost, Murray. "The Jews of Shanghai" J-Stamps Website, March 2002, <> (accessed April 4, 2004).
  14. Gilbert, Martin. The Routledge Atlas of the Holocaust, 3rd Edition. London and New York: Routledge, 2002.
  15. Goldstein, Jonathan. "Singapore, Manila and Harbin as Reference Points for Asian 'Port Jewish' Identity."  Paper presented at the conference "Port Jews and Jewish Communities in Cosmopolitan Maritime Trading Centres," Kaplan Centre, University of Cape Town, January 7, 2003, 8. Publication forthcoming in 2004.
  16. Griese, John W. "The Jewish Community in Manila. " Master of Arts Thesis, University of the Philippines, April 11, 1954.
  17. Hartendorp, A. V. H. The Japanese Occupation of the Philippines, Vol II. Manila: Bookmark, 1967.
  18. Heppner, Ernest. Shanghai Refuge: A Memoir of the World War II Jewish Ghetto. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska, 1993.
  19. Johansen, Bruce E. So Far From Home: Manila's Santo Tomas Internment Camp, 1942-1945. PBI Press, 1996.
  20. Kranzler, David. Japanese, Nazis, & Jews: The Jewish Refugee Community of Shanghai, 1938-1945. Hoboken, NJ: KTAV Publishing House, Inc., 1988.
  21. Lemay, Michael and Elliott Robert Barkan. U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Laws and Issues. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 1999.
  22. Lipetz, Jacques. "Witnesses" Holocaust remembrance website, created by Cybrary Community April 25, 1995 <> (accessed June 20, 2003).
  23. Lucas, Celia. Prisoners of Santo Tomas. London: Leo Cooper Ltd., 1975.
  24. Manchester, William. American Caesar: Douglas MacArthur 1880-1964. New York: Dell Publishing Co., 1978.
  25. Onorato, Michael P. Jock Netzorg: Manila Memories. Laguna Beach, California: Pacific Rim Books. Interview date March 4, 1987.
  26. Onorato, Michael P. "Henry Sioux Johnson: A Stranger in a Strange Land." Oral History Program, California State University, Fullerton, 1985.
  27. Read, Anthony and David Fisher. Kristallnacht: Unleashing the Holocaust. London: Michael Joseph LTD, 1989.
  28. Rosenthal, Erich. "Trends of the Jewish Population in Germany, 1910-1939. " Jewish Social Studies 6:1 (1944) 233-274.
  29. Schulzinger, Robert D. The U.S. Diplomacy Since 1900. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.
  30. Schwab, Gerald. The Day the Holocaust Began: The Odyssey of Herschel Grynsypan. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1990.
  31. Simon Wiesenthal Center Online Multimedia Learning Center. Created 1997 <> (accessed November 25, 2003).
  32. Stevens, Frederic Harper. Santo Tomas Internment Camp. NY: Stratford House, 1946.
  33. Stratz, Reiner. transcribed by Naomi Teveth. Online Database created in Israel, November 2002. <> (accessed November 25, 2003).
  34. Van Sickle, Emily. The Iron Gates of Santo Tomas: The Firsthand Account of an American Couple Interned by the Japanese in Manila, 1942-1945. Chicago: Academy of Chicago Publisher, 1992.
  35. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. "Regions of the Philippines", January 2001 <> (accessed April 4, 2004).
  36. Yad Vashem, The Holocaust Martyr's and Heroes Remembrance Authority Website. "Emmanuel Ringelblum's Notes of the Refugees in Zbaszyn," Documents of the Holocaust, part 1. Copyright 2003. From R. Mahler, "Mikhtavei E. Ringelblum mi-Zbaszyn veal Zbaszyn" ("Letters of E. Ringelblum from and about Zbaszyn"), Yalkut Moreshet, No. 2 (1964), pp. 24-25. (accessed November 21, 2003) <>.
  37. Yad Vashem, The Holocaust Martyr's and Heroes Remembrance Authority Website. "Zbaszyn" copyright 2003, <> (accessed November 25, 2003).
  38. Yegar, Moshe. Between Integration and Secession: The Muslim Communities of the Southern Philippines, Southern Thailand, and Western Burma/Myanmar, New York: Lexington Books, 2002.
  39. Young, Daniel. "Welcome to the History of the Philippines" Lessons in History by Daniel Young, Univ. of Alberta, <> , (accessed October 20, 2004).

bibliography by Bonnie Harris, Feb. 2005, converted and uploaded 2/10/05, formatting 11/9/06
back to top, to From Zbaszyn to Manila paper, to Hist 233ab website, to Prof. Marcuse's homepage