Hist 33D, L 6: Kristallnacht: Causes & Consequences
by Prof. H. Marcuse, UCSB, Oct. 9, 2003

What does this event tell us about the nature of the Nazi regime and the origins of the Holocaust?

Midterm Question 1

A personal story (my grandfather's father): Carl Marcuse (1864-1948), emigrated Berlin->London March 1939

C.Marcuse passport 1
Carl Marcuse's passport was issued on Feb. 25, 1939. As per the law passed on Oct. 5, 1938, it was stamped with a red "J."
C.Marcuse passport 2
As per a law passed Aug. 17, 1938, all Jewish men had to have "Israel" in their name, effective Jan. 1, 1939. Carl included it in his passport signature.
C.Marcuse passport 3
Carl's passport expired on 25 Feb. 1940. It was renewed by the Swiss legation in London until 25. Aug. 1940 and 25. Feb. 1941, then again until 25 Aug. 1941.

C.Marcuse passport 4
Carl was granted a visa to the UK on Feb. 27, 1939. On Mar. 14 he left from Berlin Tegel airport, arriving the same day at Croydon. On March 22 he registered at the Bow St. police station in London.

C.Marcuse passport 5
On Sept. 5, 1940 he received British quota number 6074. On Sept. 28 he received an exit permit for one journey to the U.S. before Dec. 28, 1940.
C.Marcuse passport 6
On March 13, 1939, 12 days after his 75th birthday, two weeks after he received his passport and UK visa, and the day before he left for London, Carl was allowed to convert only 10 Reichsmarks to British currency for the trip. (detail below)
Carl Marcuse obtained his driver's license (at right) on 4 November 1927 at age 63. Beginning Dec. 3, 1938 Jews' drivers's licenses became invalid and were confiscated. He must have been able to smuggle his to London. Carl Marcuse: driver's license Bank stamp in passport, changed 10RM
C.Marcuse army 1
Carl's army reserve book gives his religion as "Mosaisch" (#3).
C.Marcuse army 2
He was released from the "2nd guard regiment on foot" on 1 Oct. 1886.
C.Marcuse army 3
On Sept. 30, 1886 he was certified qualified for the reserve in shooting class II.

Kristallnacht: background

1938 poster for annexing Austria
color map showing Germany's 1930s expansion
b/w map showing Germany's 1930s expansion

1938 Anschluss referendum

Step by Step Adolf Hitler ripped up the dictated Treaty of Versailles!
1933 Germany leaves the League of Nations created by Versailles
1934 Reconstruction of the Wehrmacht, the navy and the Luftwaffe begun!
1935 Saarland brought back home! Armed power of the Reich regained!
1936 Rheinland completely liberated!
1937 The myth of war guilt ceremoniously extinguished!
1938 Germany and Austria united in the Reich! Greater Germany achieved!
Therefore the whole of Germany will acknowledge their liberator on 10th April.Adolf Hitler All say: YES!

1938 Events

Events November 7-9

Events Nov. 10

Events Nov. 12-Dec.

Causes of Kristallnacht?

prepared for web by H. Marcuse, Oct. 18, 2003
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