UCSB Hist 4C, Spring 2000Prof. Marcuse
Western Civilization, 1715-presentJune 9, 2000


NOTE: The short definitions given below are taken from the course textbook website. For most, reproducing this information will get you a "C" on the exam. In order to raise that grade, you must figure out why these terms are significant in the context of this course. Ask yourself:

  1. Joseph Stalin (1879-1953) (p. 926, lecture 18): succeeded Lenin in the dictatorship of the Soviet Union. Came to power through a series of purges to eliminate possible challengers. Replaced NEP with the First Five-Year Plan which stressed industrial over agricultural production. The agricultural component of the First Five-Year Plan was collectivization whereby millions of peasants moved from traditional lands to collective farms. The First Five-Year Plan aimed to transform the Soviet Union from a predominantly agricultural country into a predominantly industrial one. It emphasized heavy industry at the expense of consumer goods.
  2. fascism (p. 928; also lecture 15!): an authoritarian political movement that sought to subordinate individuals to the service of the state (as represented by its leader). (also: totalitarianism)
  3. Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) (p. 928, 946) dictator of the Nazi Party in Germany. After Germany's defeat in World War I he became chair of the nationalist Socialist German Workers' Party. After 1929, the Nazi party attracted many supporters and using economic and political discontent (from what?), Hitler promised a new order that would lead Germany to greatness. Stressing radical doctrines, particularly anti-Semitism and anti-communism, Hitler was finally given the position of Chancellor of Germany. In 1939, he disregarded the appeasement policy signed at Munich and led Germany into war by invading Poland. Appeasement was a policy formulated at the Munich Conference in 1938, under which they would concede the lands already occupied by Nazi Germany if Hitler would promise to cease his expansion of territorial claims.
  4. Auschwitz (lecture 17)
  5. United Nations (UN) (p. 968): a supra-national organization dedicated to keeping world peace and security and promoting friendly relations among the world's nations. It offered an alternative for global reconstruction that was independent of the Cold War. (What was its predecessor?)
  6. Truman Doctrine (p. 967, lecture 18): On March 12, 1947, in a speech given by Truman, the new ground rules for the Cold War were laid out. Defining the U. S. perception of a world divided between free and enslaved people, Truman argued that the United States had a moral responsibility to intervene and "contain" the spread of communism. This policy of "containment" would serve as the foundation of American foreign policy for the next five decades.
    See also: containment strategy (p. 976): an American policy aimed at denying the Soviet Union expansion of its influence throughout the world.
  7. Marshall Plan (1948) (p. 967): Named after U.S. secretary of state George C. Marshall, this policy proposed to rebuild European economies through cooperation and capitalism, forestalling communist or Soviet influence in the devastated nations of Europe.
  8. Warsaw Pact (p. 968) When NATO admitted West Germany and allowed it to rearm in 1955, the Soviets formed the Warsaw Pact as a countermeasure. It was a military alliance of seven communist European nations, and matched the collective defense policies of NATO.
    See also: Warsaw Treaty Organization (p.980) Post-WWII bloc intended to serve as a military defense against the expansion of American influence especially with the rearming of West Germany.
  9. Nikita Khrushchev (1894-1971) (p. 973, 976, 1013, lecture 18): Stalin's successor in the Soviet Union. Khrushchev developed a version of communism which omitted the terror and intimidation that had characterized the Stalin period. He called for a more economically productive type of communism that aimed for balanced growth with the controlled production of material goods. Began an active period of de-Stalinization, but also confronted the U.S. in the Cuban missile crisis.
  10. Mohandas K. Gandhi (1869-1948) ( p. 933): The great spiritual and political leader of twentieth century India. He was raised in an upper class Hindu household; he studied law in London and went to South Africa where he embraced a moral philosophy of tolerance and nonviolence and developed the technique of passive resistance. Transformed the Indian National Congress into an effective instrument of Indian nationalism.
  11. Fidel Castro Ruz (1926-) (p. 982): revolutionary communist who led the movement to overthrow Batista in Cuba. After seizing power he aligned Cuba with the Soviet Union.
  12. Kwame Nkrumah (1909-1972) (p. 989, 1003): led Ghana to independence.
  13. Jan Palach (lecture 19):
    See also Alexander Dubcek (p. 1014): Czechoslovakian leader who was deposed by the Soviets after launching "socialism with a human face" during the "Prague Spring" in 1968.
  14. Brezhnev doctrine (p. 1014): Soviet Doctrine of Limited Sovereignty which reserved the right to invade socialist countries threatened by internal or external elements.
  15. Détente (p. 1015): reduction in tensions between the Soviet Union and United States during the 1960's.
  16. Apartheid (p. 1022): separateness," South African system implemented by the Afrikaner National Party to control the native black population.
  17. Mobutu Sese Seko (p. 1023): U.S.-supported dictator who, along with his "vampire elite," plundered Zaire (later renamed the Democratic Republic of the Congo).
  18. Imre Nagy (p. 1013): Hungarian leader who was deposed and executed after announcing Hungary's withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact.
  19. Mikhail Gorbachev (1931-) (pp. 1043-46, lecture 19): Soviet leader, launched economic reforms in the late 1980s that unleashed anti-Communism forces from within and without, eventually led to the collapse of the Soviet Union and disappearance of the Soviet empire in Europe. (See also: perestroika, glasnost)
  20. velvet revolution (p. 1044): Refers to non-violent transfer of power in Czechoslovakia formerly ruled by hard-line communism; communist leadership (who?) simply stood by and watched events take their course.
  21. Pan-American Culture (p. 1050); see also Global Barbie (p. 1048):
  22. Age of Access (p. 1051):
  23. "Warning to Humanity" (p. 1059): Environmental document of 1992 signed by 1500 scientists, including 99 Nobel laureates and representatives from a dozen of the world's most prestigious academies.