Here you can find all of the research that went into this page. It is divided between Daniel's sources and Jon's sources.

Daniel's sources


Neier, A. Defending My Enemy . New York: E. P. Dutton, 1979.

Aryeh Neier was Jewish and most of his family was lost in the Holocaust. He served as Executive Director for the American Civil Liberties Union from 1970-78. This book helped us to understand the position that the ACLU took defending both free speech and hate speech. The ACLU felt a responsibility to defend the right of free speech, no matter how hateful that speech was. This caused the ACLU to lose a large portion of their membership, since many of its members were Jewish citizens unwilling to support a Nazis' right to freedom of speech. The memory of the Holocaust was still fresh in the minds of these people, yet men like Aryeh Neier and David Goldberger, the ACLU attorney for the Nazis, were unwilling to allow powerful emotions to stop them from respecting what they saw as a constitutional right.


Bergman, J. Skokie Park District, Skokie, Illinois. October 25, 1976.

These are the minutes taken at the Skokie Park District board meeting October 25, 1976, indicating a letter was received from Frank Collin requesting an open-air rally, and also the appropriate response given by the Skokie Park District. The minutes helped us to see the carefully articulated response that eventually caused such a frenzy around Skokie. While the requirements for a march seem reasonable, it is important to note that they were crafted with the design of keeping the Nazis out. A special thanks to Harminder Bhangoo for allowing us access to her records where we found this document.

Collin, F. Skokie, Illinois. October 4, 1976

This is a formal letter written by Frank Collin, NSPA party leader, to the Skokie Park District demanding the rights to free speech as "guaranteed to all Americans." He requests the use of Birch Park November 6, 1976 for an outdoor rally. The document seems peaceful enough, but once one takes to note who the speaker and the audience are, it takes on a whole new meaning. The leader of a Neo-Nazi party addressing the Park District of a town housing 7,000 Holocaust survivors does not seem nearly as typical as the letter would make it seem.


Mabely, J. "The Nazis Got a Real Problem." Chicago Tribune , Chicago. June 21, 1977.

This is an interesting article because of its apparent hostility. The author attempts to define the concept of Nazism and establish what exactly a Nazi is. In the end, he decides that their moral convictions are not an issue, but rather, how they express themselves. For example, by wearing a swastika, a man is a Nazi, no matter how deeply held his beliefs are. The author then points out that Frank Collin is actually a Jewish man who changed his name from Frank Cohn to Frank Collin, found himself to be a loser, and finally joined the Nazi cause. No matter how truthful these allegations, it helps to understand some of the hatred for the things Collin wished to bring into Skokie.


"Free Speech." American Civil Liberties Union. Retrieved November 10, 2003. F reeSpeechMain.cfm

This article covers the rights of free speech and how the First Amendment exists precisely to protect the most offensive and controversial speech from government suppression. Since 1920 the ACLU has been protecting the rights of freedom of speech. The First Amendment is the guidebook and the defender of freedom of expression.

"Attempted Nazi Rally in Skokie Materials 1976-1977." Digital Past. Retrieved November 12, 2003. o llection.asp?CollectionID=50004

This website is crucial in providing the background and the story of the Skokie Nazi march. It is also incredibly helpful by providing numerous newspaper articles and documents that help to clarify the issues.

" When the Nazis Came to Skokie: Freedom for Speech We Hate ." University Press of Kansas. Retrieved November 1, 2002.

http://www.kansaspress.ku . edu/strwhe.html

This excellent book review/summary is informative about the Jewish population in Skokie and gave more background information about the Skokie March. It also pointed us to another book.


"Skokie News Clips." Vanderbilt News Archives, February 23, 1978.

This video, obtained from Vanderbilt University, which maintains a large archive of past news broadcasts, gave us many quotes from interviews and really helped to put us in the shoes of the people living at that time. While watching the video, on can feel the emotions and almost hear the arguments that were raging in Skokie during the buildup to the march. It was great for watching the people involved and obtaining an idea of what was going on. It also had plenty of footage of Collin and his men to demonstrate how horrible their speech actually was.

Jon's sources


Strum, Phillipa. When the Nazis Came to Skokie: Freedom for Speech We Hate .

Kansas: The University Press of Kansas, 1999

At its core this book seems to be a courtroom drama. It gives personal insights about the participants of the Skokie incident. One such insight is that the Nazi leader, Frank Collin, was actually born to a Jewish father, an allegation found in other readings we did but hardly concrete. It is this aspect that makes When the Nazis Came to Skokie different from the articles I read during this project. One of its major themes is the complexity of the ACLU's position to defend to Nazis right to free speech. The primary trial lawyer was in fact a Jewish man and the Senior Director of the ACLU had family who died in the Holocaust. This theme of dual interests, that of an American lawyer who happens to be a Jewish, and that of a Neo-nazi leader who may be Jewish is the driving force of the book.


National Socialist Party of American et al. v. Village of Skokie. Supreme Court of

The United States . June 14, 1977, Filed.

This is the transcript of the U.S. Supreme Court's reversal of the denial of a stay of an injunction previously obtained by the Village of Skokie from the State Supreme Court. The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the state's order denied the Nazi party's rights. Very Boring Judicial language that gives the final ruling a 5-4 decision to uphold the Nazi's right to march through downtown Skokie. It is the climax to the Skokie constitutional debate but hardly a climax to the situations outside the courtroom.


"Coalition Forms to Combat Nazis." Chicago Tribune , Chicago. June 28, 1977.

While Frank Collin and his National Socialist Party of America planned their march through Skokie Illinois a number of counter demonstrators were planning to meet him. Among these counter demonstrators was Illinois governor James Thompson and Skokie resident and Holocaust survivor Sol Goldstein.

Evans, C. "The Limits of Free Speech." New York Times , New York City. January 12, 1978.

This article illustrates the legal argument against the Nazis. Evans uses the legal idea of clear and present danger to show the limits on freedom of speech. And the natural extension of this idea of clear and present danger is to apply it to the Skokie march. The argument follows that by the very nature of the Nazi presence there is a threat to lives and property.


"Skokie News Clips." Vanderbilt News Archives, June 12, 1977.

The title is pretty much what the video consisted of, news clippings (one including a very young Barbara Walters reading the courts decision on Skokie). On this tape were some interviews by the defenders of the Nazis mainly David Goldberger, the chief attorney for the Nazis, and Aryeh Neier, the senior director for the ACLU. Along with these viewpoints were interviews by those who stood against the Nazi march. The most compelling of this bunch was Abbot Rosen who was the leader of the Anti Defamation League. The most violent of this bunch, undoubtedly, was the leader of the Jewish Defense League, Rabbi Kahane.


"Visit Auschwitz first" Freedman, Philip E. Chicago Sun-Times Sun-Times Co., Chicago, IL, 04/16, 1978. Digital Past. Retrieved November 12, 2003.

This is a compelling editorial written by an associate professor of psychology at the University of Chicago about a change of heart he had regarding the Skokie march. He states that at first his impulse as an intellectual was to defend the Nazi march but after a stay in Poland and a consequent visit to Auschwitz he changes his mind. He states that the evil perpetrated by the Nazis was nightmarish and the thought that this travesty might play out again is even scarier.

History 33D Course Page
History 33D Projects Page
Skokie Project homepage
Debate on the Issues
Frank Joseph Collin- Life After Skokie
The research behind the page