4C/Marcuse, L18 overlay, June 1, 2000


Music: Joan Baez, "Natalia Gorbanevskaya" (1968)

How did people attempt to realize Communism?

  1. Joseph Stalin (1879-1953)
  2. Video clip: Cold War highlights
    Churchill's 1947 "Iron Curtain" speech, Berlin Wall 1961, Sputnik, Cuban Missle Crisis 1962
  3. Cold War: Marx vs. Ford? [overlay Bentley/Ziegler, below]
    • Political, social, ideological, economic rivalry
    • Origin: Rapallo (1922) vs. Yalta (Feb. 1945) [overlay, below]
    • Phases: intense 1947-53, 1958-62
    • Hard line (containment) vs. soft (détente)
      • "Truman doctrine" (March 1947)
    • Nikita Khrushchev (succeeded Stalin in 1953)
      • overtake capitalism in production of material wealth
      • agriculture, heavy industry, central planning, terror
    • reform instead of repression?
      • Czech. 1948
      • E. Berlin '53
      • Hungary '56
      • Prague '68
  4. The Prague Spring
    • Jan. 1968: Dubcek "socialism with a human face"
    • Documentary: Oratorio for Prague
    • Jan Palach (1948-Jan. 16, 1969): human torches

Yalta Conference (Feb. 1945, Ukraine):
Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin agreed to install in eastern Europe:
"… interim governmental authorities broadly representative of all democratic elements of the population … and the earliest possible establishment through free elections of governments responsive to the will of the people."

Textbook Bentley/Ziegler, p. 976
"The commitment to wage the cold war, whose costs were high for both sides, hinged on the belief that the conflict was ultimately a battle between rival-and incompatible-social, political, and economic systems. At the heart of the cold war lay an ideological conflict between captialism and communism. Ideology mattered profoundly, explaining why political crises occurred so frequently and international tensions remained at a high pitch and why the Soviet Union and the United States were unable to live in peaceful coexistence."