4C/Marcuse, L19 overlay, June 6, 2000


Music: Billy Joel (b. 1949), "We didn't start the fire" (2000)

What caused the demise of the communist bloc?

  1. Reform vs. repression?
  2. Evaluations, announcements
    music: Beethoven, 9th symphony (1824) / Schiller "Ode to Joy" (1779) (text excerpt below)
  3. The "Fall of the Wall" (9 Nov. 1989)

Human torches:
19631963Vietnam Buddhist monks
8 Sept. 1968Warsaw Ryszard Siwiec, 59
16 Jan. 1969Prague Jan Palach, 20
20 Jan. Plzen Josef Hlavaty, 25
22 Jan. Brno Miroslav Malinka, 33
22 Jan. Budapest Sándor, 17
22 Jan. Genua Enrico Autognotti, 58
25 Feb. Prague Jan Zajic, 18
Apr. Jihlava Evzen Plocek, 40
3 Oct. UCSD George Winney, 23
18 Aug. 1976E. Germany Oskar Bruesewitz

Schiller (1779): "Ode to Joy"

listen to Beethoven's 9th symphony (1824), with a choral singing of the poem

"Oh Friends, not these complaints!
Let us ring happier songs, and more joyful!
Joy, o spark of the gods!

Thy magic joins together again
all that worldly fashion has divided;
All people become brothers
Where your gentle wings rest.

As joyfully as God's suns fly
Through heaven's wondrous plan,
Follow your courses brothers
Joyfully as a knight to victory

Do you have any idea of your creator, o World?
Look for him above the dome of starts!
He must be above the starts!