UCSB > History Dept. > Prof. Marcuse > Courses > Hist 133a > Lecture 9: Pre-March (Vormärz)

UCSB Hist 133A, Fall 2006 (133a homepage)
19th Century Germany, Oct. 20, 2006

Prof. Marcuse (homepage)

Lecture 9:
The "Pre-March" (Vormärz) Period
(previous lecture, next lecture)


  • Orders for Heinrich Mann book (27 signed up)
  • Book proposal guidelines: help me to improve them; library use (not just amazon!)

Guiding Questions

  • How did the "balance of power" move towards revolution from the 1830s to 1848?
  • What were the underlying causes of the movement towards revolution? Was it inevitable?

Events from Hambach Festival to 1848

  • 1832: Hambach Festival near Neustadt/Weinstrasse (Schulze p. 126)
  • 1833: students in Frankfurt storm the Guard House, try to disrupt the meeting of princes of the German Federation (Deutscher Bund)
  • 1834: German Customs Union (Prof. Friedrich List, Tübingen, 1789-1846
  • 1837: King August of Hanover revokes constitution
    seven Göttingen professors: Dahlmann (history), Albrecht (law), Jacob & Wilhelm Grimm (German lit.), Gervinus (history), Ewalt (theology) und Weber (physics)
  • 1839: War in the Balkans
  • 1840: Friedrich Wilhelm IV: early rehabilitation of "demagogues," but adamant about God's grace
  • 1840-41: Rhine Crisis (expansionist politics of Thiers government in France)
  • 1841: Hoffmann von Fallersleben composes "Deutschlandlied" to tune of "God save Kaiser Franz"
  • 1842: start of construction of medieval cathedral in Cologne; fir in Hamburg
  • 1843: prohibition of Marx's "Rhine News"
  • 1843: Heine's trip through Germany; "Young Germany" literary movement
  • 1844: Weavers' Uprisings in Silesia

"Song of the Germans," 1841

Germany, Germany above all,
Above everything in the world,
When it always, for protection and defiance,
Brotherly stands together.
From the Meuse to the Neman,
From the Adige to the Belt,
Germany, Germany above all,
Above everything in the world.
German women, German loyalty,
German wine and German song
Shall retain in the world
Their old beautiful ring
And inspire us to noble deeds
During all of our life.
German women, German loyalty,
German wine and German song!
Unity and Justice and Freedom
For the German fatherland;
For these let us all strive,
Brotherly with heart and hand.
Unity and justice and freedom
Are the pledge of happiness.
Prosper in this fortune's blessing,
Prosper, German fatherland.

prepared for web by H. Marcuse on Oct. 25, 2006, updated: 10/x/06
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